What is an Internet of things (IoT) ?
The Internet of things (IoT) may be a tiny device embedded in objects, machines. And things are connected to wireless networks which sends and receives information.
Sometimes named as a “radio chip“, “rf module” or “IoT chip,” the IoT module contains an equivalent technology. Information circuits found in mobile phones however not options sort of input devices like keyboard or display. And how to use these available options depends on the available technologies and available opportunities.
Another key and important feature of IoT modules is that they are always-on. Because IoT applications compelled to send information by itself. That to in period of time, while not somebody touching a send button.
Now the question is why wireless connectivity for IoT ?
Given its significant benefits in terms of reliability, minimal latency and security. Wired communications has been the backbone of industrial control and automation systems. IoT applications arises, we quickly see wired solutions reaching their limits.
Trenching cables is inherently cumbersome, capital- and labor-intensive, not to mention the fact that damage to wiring brings the risk of production downtime. Due to the plethora of proprietary wiring protocols, any additions or modifications to the architecture is deemed costly and could even entail a “rip-and-replace” of cables and conduits. The bulky and expensive wired infrastructure thus limits the number of connected endpoints and is highly constrained in terms of range and network capacity.
In direct comparison, wireless networks require far fewer hardware components, and less installation and maintenance costs. Mobile assets can be with sensors to tap as a new host of operational data. On top of that, wireless networks make data collection in hard-to-access and hazardous environments possible and can flexibly expand to meet your changing business needs.
The central value around IoT is the unprecedented visibility into existing processes, equipment and production environment that empowers strategic decision-making. Think of applications used for asset maintenance, facility management and worker safety. As opposed to high-bandwidth, time-sensitive communications. Many IoT sensor networks send small-sized telemetry data periodically or at abnormalities conditions. Of even greater importance is their ability to connect vast numbers of distributed field assets and devices to bring
granular business insights. With this in mind, wireless connectivity is often the better option to bring your physical “things” online.
IoT Available technologies
The Internet of Things (IoT) starts with the selection of the available technology you are going to use and the type of connectivity you use in available opportunities. And since IoT is a widely diverse and multifaceted realm, none of us certainly cannot find a one module fitting with all communication solution. Each solution has its strengths and weaknesses in various network criteria.
Given the bewildering range of wireless solutions available in the market today, choosing the right technology is no easy task. While the requirements we have briefly discussed serve as a useful baseline, the list is far from exhaustive and can vary depending on the use cases. With that said, let’s look into the most prominent wireless families in the market today So in this part let us first learn about key technologies available.
There are well established cellular market present, offering reliable broadband communication to support voice calls and video streaming. The latest cellular standard – 5G, has garnered a great deal of excitement. Compared to previous generations, 5G introduces significant improvements including ultra-reliable low-latency communications(URLLC) and better mobility support.
On the flip side, cellular networks – including 5G carry very high power consumption and expensive data plans. Most IoT applications powered by battery-operated sensor networks. Connected cars and fleet management can use cellular family. For example, in-car traffic routing, infotainment, advanced driver assistance systems (ADAS). Along with the fleet telematics and tracking services are able to rely on the high bandwidth and trans-region availability of cellular connectivity.
5G is a dominant catalyst with high-speed mobility support and ultra-low latency. for other emerging tech trends like augmented/virtual reality and autonomous vehicles. Future public safety and mission-critical communications and certain industrial automation use.
There is little need to explain Wi-Fi (also known as Wireless Local Area Networks), given its critical role in providing high-throughput data transfer for both enterprise and home environments. However, in the IoT space, Wi-Fi’s inherent limitations in terms of coverage, scalability and power consumption make the technology much less prevalent.
Wi-Fi is a less feasible because of high energy requirements and a limited range (less than 100meters). Moreover for large networks of battery powered IoT sensors, especially in industrial IoT and smart building scenarios. Devices connected to a power outlet like smart home gadgets and appliances, digital signs or security cameras are suitable for Wi-Fi. Self-interference is also a real challenge in Wi-Fi networks. An increase in the number of end devices can quickly degrade connection quality.
Wi-Fi 6, the newest Wi-Fi generation, brings greatly enhanced system bandwidth (i.e. <9.6 Gbps) to improve data throughput per user in congested environments. Due to this there is a need to level up public Wi-Fi infrastructure. Which transform the customer experience with new digital mobile services in retail, hospitality and mass entertainment sectors. However, development will likely take more time.
3. IEEE 802.15.4 Mesh Protocols
IEEE 802.15.4 is obviously a radio standard, which defines physical and medium access control (MAC) layers in low-rate Wireless Personal Area Networks. After reducing data rate to a maximum of 250 kbit/s, IEEE 802.15.4 solutions aim to deliver a low power alternative to traditional wireless options. Common technologies based on IEEE 802.15.4 specifications include WirelessHART, ISA-100.11a, and Zigbee.
The physical range of IEEE 802.15.4 protocols is often limited to between10 and 100 meters. As such, these protocols must resort to a mesh topology, wherein before reaching the gateway a signal hops through multiple devices, in order to improve the overall network footprint. In full mesh networks for example WirelessHART, the routing ability is with all sensor nodes to relay data from other nodes. In partial mesh networks only the selected node act as routers, like Zigbee orISA-100.11a . While it helps to extend coverage, mesh topology is not power efficient and requires complex configuration and management, particularly when the network scales to a few hundreds of devices. Mesh solutions are best for medium range applications. Nodes are distributed evenly near each other in mesh solution.
For example, WirelessHART and ISA-100.11a an ideal alternative to expensive wired networks in certain industrial automation and control scenarios. Similarly, Zigbee can greatly complement Wi-Fi to enable home automation use cases like smart lighting, water and energy monitoring or security sensor networks.
4. Bluetooth/ BLE
Also categorized as Wireless Personal Area Networks, Bluetooth is a short-range communication technology well-positioned in the consumer market. Bluetooth Classic was originally for point-to point or point-to-multi-point (up to seven slave nodes) for data exchanging among consumer devices. Optimized for power consumption by drastically reducing data rates. Bluetooth Low-Energy (BLE) was later introduced to address small-scale Consumer IoT applications.
BLE-enabled devices are often used in conjunction with electronic devices. An example is smart phones that acts as a hub for transferring data to the cloud. Today’s world, BLE is widely used into fitness, medical wearables (e.g. smart watches, pulse oximeters, glucose meters, etc.). And extended in Smart Home devices (e.g. door locks). Data is easily send and visualized on smart phones.
Bluetooth Mesh specification in 2017 aimed to enable deployment of BLE devices on large scale, particularly in retail areas. BLE, hence providing versatile indoor localization features, BLE beacon networks are being used to unlock new service innovations. For example in-store navigation, personalized promotions, and content delivery.
5. Low Power Wide Area Networks (LPWAN)
Geared for low-bandwidth, low computing finish nodes, the newer Low Power Wide space Networks (LPWAN) provide extremely power-efficient and reasonable IoT property in huge, structurally dense environments. No current wireless categories will beat LPWAN once it involves battery life, device and connectivity prices, and simple implementation. The name implies, LPWAN nodes square measure designed to work on freelance batteries for years like different wireless solutions. They will conjointly transmit over several kilometers whereas providing deep penetration capability to connect devices. Even installed on hard-to-reach indoor location and underground locations too.
Reference – https://behrtech.com/blog/6-leading-types-of-iot-wireless-tech-and-their-best-use-cases/
Due to this distinctive combination of options. LPWAN has established itself as a chief driver of large, latency-tolerant sensors network in industrial IoT, building and town sectors. Whereas there’s a inordinateness of LPWAN protocols obtainable these days. So, it’s necessary to appear at the distinct advantages of standard-based technologies. Given the explosive growth of IoT connected devices, Quality-of-Service, quantifiability and ability will be cardinal criteria in your wireless call.
3GPP-based standards like NB-IoT and LTE-M, supported the most recent ETSI open customary for low-through put networks. These have emerged as alternatives to proprietary technologies (e.g. LoRa, Sigfox, etc.) and specifically address these necessities. In terms of applications, NB-IoT and different carrier-based LPWAN standards will be a core pillar of future good town networks. Investment existing cellular infrastructure, these managed networks give in depth coverage in urban areas, whereas removing infrastructure expenses. On the other hand, for industrial deployments wherever knowledge security and possession are supreme concerns. In camera deployed solutions can rise as a preferred possibility. As associate degree aside, industrial facilities square measure usually set in remote regions. These are square measure poorly serviceable by network operators.
Radio Frequency Identification (RFID) uses radio waves to transmit little amounts of knowledge. RFID tag sends it to a reader among a really short distance. Till now, the technology has expedited a serious revolution in retail and supplying.
By attaching Associate in Nursing RFID tag to all or any styles of merchandise and instrumentality, businesses. Helps in tracking their inventory and assets in time period. RFID provide higher stock and production designing still as optimized provide chain management. Aboard increasing IoT adoption, RFID continues to be entrenched within the retail sector. And new IoT applications like sensible shelves, self-checkout, and sensible mirrors. To quickly total up, every IoT vertical and application has its own distinctive set of network necessities. Selecting the most effective wireless technology for your IoT. Consider criteria in terms of vary, bandwidth, QoS, security, power consumption, and network management.